We hypothesize that water pipe smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and respiratory impairment that will manifest through gene expression changes. As part of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects of Water Pipe Smoking study (Protocol number IM.HC.03), we will collect blood to test for biomarkers of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and store the remains of the blood sample collected for undetermined time for future biomedical and genetic testing. Since genetic data lack in our region, this project will be the first genetic repository project on the Lebanese population to evaluate the effect of water pipe smoking on genetic variants in predicting disorders.
This project will include the 440 participants of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects of Water Pipe Smoking. They constitute 110 water pipe smokers from Lebanon, Beirut and 110 from Qatar, Doha aged 40 years or older reporting more than 10 years of smoking and 220 sex and age matched non-smoker controls (110 in each site).
Individuals 40 years or older who report water pipe smoking for more than 10 years are being enrolled. Patients with smoking related lung disease (COPD, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and lung cancer) can be included.
Cigarette smokers and patients with history of pulmonary disease (asthma, bronchiectasis, fibrosis), diabetes and renal failure are excluded.