Clinical Research Details

Descriptive Information
Chronic Pain: The Development and Psychometric Validation of an Arabic-Language Version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS-A)

Huda Huijer Abu-Saad


Clinical Research - Epidemiologic and Behavioral Studies  

Conditions and Keywords
chronic pain patients
pain,pain catstrophizing
Study Design
Other: Describe in Detailed Description
the purpose of the project is to develop and psychometrically evaluate Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) in the Arabic language among a sample of 150 adults in Lebanon.
N/A: Not Applicable
Observational Study
N/A: Not Applicable
Eligibility and IRB


Chronic pain is believed to be a disease on its own and has been increasing in prevalence. While reporting or anticipating pain, patients experience a negative “mental set” of catastrophizing that has been described as an exaggerated cognitive-affective response to actual or anticipated pain. The 13-item Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) is the most widely used measure of pain-specific catastrophizing and assesses three dimensions: rumination, magnification, and helplessness. The PCS has been translated and validated in several languages though no Arabic version exists that measures an important predictor of pain and pain-related outcomes. Thus, the purpose of the project is to develop and psychometrically evaluate PCS in the Arabic language among a sample of 150 adults in Lebanon.

A convenience sample of 150 patients (18-65 years of age) experiencing chronic non-malignant pain of more than 3 months duration will be recruited from the Pain Clinic at the American University of Beirut Medical Center over a period of one year. The self-reported Chronic Pain questionnaire will consist of 4 instruments that measures pain and pain catastrophizing, mood, physical activity and quality of life.   

A convenience sample will be recruited from the AUBMC-Pain Clinic. The outpatient clinic provides care to Lebanese patients from different socioeconomic background. Participants referred to the AUBMC pain clinic for medical assessment or treatment as usual will be invited to participate as described below.


The RA will inform the patient about the purpose of the study; if the patient agrees to participate, the informed consents will be explained and then the RA will secure their signature. The consent form will have explanations related to the purpose of the study, the benefits to participants and society, that participation is completely voluntary and harmless, will assure confidentiality, and will state that participants can refuse or withdraw any time prior, during and after the interview. The RA will provide the self-reported questionnaire to the participants and explain the rating scales only. This method will ensure the privacy of the patient in filling the questionnaire in the outpatient clinic. Consent forms will be written using simple words suitable for participants from different educational backgrounds. Participants will complete the questionnaire on their own. In the event that a participant has difficulty reading or understanding the questionnaire items, the RA will assist by administering the questionnaire verbally in a structured interview-type format. Questionnaire administration (individually completed or verbally administered) will be tracked for subsequent analyses. No questionnaires will be administered by the treating physician.


 see above


Individuals with persistent pain secondary to Cancer will be excluded. Participants with significant intellectual limitations or important psychiatric comorbidities will also be excluded.